TCP IP protocol
Before talking about the king of the protocols, (TCP/IP). lets define a protocol:

In computer terms, A protocol is a set of rules governing how data is transferred between two endpoints. The rules cover the syntax, semantics and synchronization of connection, communication and actual data exchange

TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is a set of protocol that govern how data travels between two devices, in most cases, two computers.

TCP has two huge benefits:

1. It was designed by the US Government and therefore It is free! (unlike MS NetBeui which you have to pay MS to use it; Unlike IPX/SPX designed by Novell, which you have to pay Novell to use, and unlike Apple Talk, which is made by Apple and you have to pay Apple to use it)

2. It is a routable protocol

These two reasons combined make TCP/IP the king of protocols and the most widely used computer protocol these days.

Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol is a routable protocol, but IPX/SPX was not scalable enough for large networks, therefore it lost popularity when the Internet grew
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) is the network layer protocol in the IPX/SPX protocol stack

The Layer 3 (Network Layer) contains the IP header. It is within this section the computer puts the Source and Destination IP number. The IPX and IP (Layer 2 of the OSI model) protocols both have the IP headers, which contains the source and destination, therefore both protocols are ROUTABLE. Unlike NetBeui that doesn’t have the IP header and therefore doesn’t have the source and destination IP and therefore is a NON-ROUTABLE protocol; It doesn’t know where to send the packets, outside of the LAN


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